Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals

GUIDE LABORATORYANIMALS FOR THE CARE AND USE OF Eighth Edition THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer – ing, and the Institute of Medicine.The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.This study was supported by the Office of Extramural Research, Office of the Direc – tor, National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services under Contract Number N01-OD-4-2139 Task Order #188; the Office of Research Integrity, Department of Health and Human Services; the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S.Department of Agriculture; Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International; American Association for Laboratory Animal Science; Abbott Fund; Pfizer; American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine; Ameri – can Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners; Association of Primate Veternarians.Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this pub – lication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the National Institutes of Health, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US government.International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15400-0 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15400-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-15401-7 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-15401-4 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2010940400 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area);

Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences.All rights reserved.Printed in the United States of America.The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare.Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad – emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.Dr.Ralph J.Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers.It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government.

Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals

1The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer – ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers.Dr.Charles Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public.The Insti – tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education.Dr.Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci – ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government.Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities.

2The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine.Dr.Ralph J.Cicerone and Dr.Charles M.Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research  COMMITTEE FOR THE UPDATE OF THE GUIDE FOR THE CARE AND USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS i INSTITUTE FOR LAbORATORy ANIMAL RESEARCH COUNCIL ii Staff Frances Sharples, Acting Director Lida Anestidou, Senior Program Officer Kathleen beil , Administrative Coordinator Administrative Coordinator Administrative Coordinator Cameron H.Fletcher , Managing Editor, ILAR Journal Rhonda Haycraft, Program Associate Program AssociateProgram Associate Joanne Zurlo , Director (until April 2010) iii INSTITUTE FOR LAbORATORy ANIMAL RESEARCH PUbLICATIONS Recognition and Alleviation of Pain in Laboratory Animals (2009) Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research (2009) Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals (2008) Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) Overcoming Challenges to Develop Countermeasures Against Aerosolized Bioterrorism Agents: Appropriate Use of Animal Models (2006) Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals (2006) Science, Medicine, and Animals: Teacher’s Guide (2005) Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report (2005) Science, Medicine, and Animals (2004) The Development of Science-based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop (2004) Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Interim Report (2004) National Need and Priorities for Veterinarians in Biomedical Research (2004) Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research (2003) International Perspectives: The Future of Nonhuman Primate Resources, Proceedings of the Workshop Held April 17-19, 2002 (2003) Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates (2003) Definition of Pain and Distress and Reporting Requirements for Laboratory Animals: Proceedings of the Workshop Held June 22, 2000 (2000) Strategies That Influence Cost Containment in Animal Research Facilities (2000) Microbial Status and Genetic Evaluation of Mice and Rats: Proceedings of the 1999 US/Japan Conference (2000) Microbial and Phenotypic Definition of Rats and Mice: Proceedings of the 1998 US/Japan Conference (1999) Monoclonal Antibody Production (1999) The Psychological Well-Being of Nonhuman Primates (1998) Biomedical Models and Resources: Current Needs and Future Opportunities (1998) Approaches to Cost Recovery for Animal Research: Implications for Science, Animals, Research Competitiveness and Regulatory Compliance (1998) Chimpanzees in Research: Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use (1997) ix Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (1997) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996) Rodents (1996) Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, Fourth Revised Edition (1995) Laboratory Animal Management: Dogs (1994) Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals (1992) Education and Training in the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs (1991) Companion Guide to Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991) Infectious Diseases of Mice and Rats (1991) Immunodeficient Rodents: A Guide to Their Immunobiology, Husbandry, and Use (1989) Use of Laboratory Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1988) Animals for Research: A Directory of Sources, Tenth Edition and Supplement (1979) Amphibians: Guidelines for the Breeding, Care and Management of Laboratory Animals (1974) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313www. xi Reviewers T xii REVIEWERS xiii Preface T xi PREFACE PREFACE x xii Overview T xiii OVERVIEW OVERVIEW xix xxi Contents xxii CONTENTS CONTENTS xxiii xxi CONTENTS CONTENTS xx 1 1 Key Concepts T 2 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS KEy CONCEPTS 3 4 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS KEy CONCEPTS 5 6 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS Humane Care KEy CONCEPTS  8 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS MUST, SHOULD, AND MAy KEy CONCEPTS  NRC [National Research Council].1992.Report on Responsible Science.Washington: Na- tional Academy Press.Perry P.2007.The ethics of animal research: A UK perspective.ILAR J 48:42-46.PHS [Public Health Service].

42002.Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.Publication of the Department of Health and Human Services, Na – tional Institutes of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.Available at; accessed June 9, 2010.Russell WMS, Burch RL.1959.The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique.

5London: Methuen and Co.[Reissued: 1992, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Herts, UK].USDA [US Department of Agriculture].1985.9 CFR 1A.(Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A): Animal Welfare.Available at 7adf2c9f1964e2d82a88d92andc=ecfrandtpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title09/9cfrv1_02.tpl; accessed January 14, 2010.

611 2 Animal Care and Use Program T 12 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS REGULATIONS, POLICIES, AND PRINCIPLES ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 13 14 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 15 16 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS animal science and medicine are rapidly changing and evolving disciplines.The institution should provide opportunities and support for regular profes- sional development and continuing education to ensure both that profes – sional staff are knowledgeable about the latest practices and procedures and that laboratory animals receive high-quality care (Colby et al.2007).Animal Care Personnel Personnel caring for animals should be appropri – ately trained (see Appendix A, Education), and the institution should provide for formal and/or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the Program and the humane care and use of animals.Staff should receive training and/or have the experience to complete the tasks for which they are responsible.According to the Program scope, personnel with expertise in various disciplines (e.g., animal husbandry, administration, veterinary medical technology) may be required.ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 1 used (Conarello and Shepard 2007).Training should be tailored to the particular needs of research groups; however, all research groups should receive training in animal care and use legislation, IACUC function, eth- ics of animal use and the concepts of the Three Rs, methods for reporting concerns about animal use, occupational health and safety issues pertaining to animal use, animal handling, aseptic surgical technique, anesthesia and analgesia, euthanasia, and other subjects, as required by statute.

7Continu – ing education programs should be offered to reinforce training and provide updates that reflect changes in technology, legislation, and other relevant areas.Frequency of training opportunities should ensure that all animal users have adequate training before beginning animal work.The IACUC It is the institution’s responsibility to ensure that IACUC mem – bers are provided with training opportunities to understand their work and role.Such training should include formal orientation to introduce new members to the institution’s Program; relevant legislation, regulations, guidelines, and policies; animal facilities and laboratories where animal use occurs; and the processes of animal protocol and program review (Greene et al.2007).Ongoing opportunities to enhance their understanding of ani – mal care and use in science should also be provided.For example, IACUC members may meet with animal care personnel and research teams; be provided access to relevant journals, materials, and web-based training; and be given opportunities to attend meetings or workshops.Occupational health and Safety of Personnel 18 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 1 20 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 21 22 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS as gloves, arm protectors, suitable face masks, face shields, and goggles (NRC 2003a).Hearing protection should be available in high-noise areas (OSHA 1998c).Personnel working in areas where they might be exposed to contaminated airborne particulate material or vapors should have suitable respiratory protection (Fechter 1995; McCullough 2000; OSHA 1998d), with respirator fit testing and training in the proper use and maintenance of the respirator (OSHA 1998d; Sargent and Gallo 2003).

8Medical Ealuation and Preentie Medicine for Personnel Development and implementation of a program of medical evaluation and preventive medicine should involve input from trained health professionals, such as occupational health physicians and nurses.Confidentiality and other medi – cal and legal factors must be considered in the context of appropriate fed – eral, state, and local regulations (e.g., PL 104-191).ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 23 24 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 25 26 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 2 Special Considerations for IACUC Reiew 28 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 2 30 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 31 least restriction necessary to achieve the scientific objective while maintain- ing animal well-being.32 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS Field Inestigations Investigations may involve the observation or use of nondomesticated vertebrate species under field conditions.Many field investigations require international, federal, state, and/or local permits, which may call for an evaluation of the scientific merit of the proposed study and a determination of the potential impact on the population or species to be studied.ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 33 disease studies, administrators, regulators, and IACUCs face a dilemma in deciding how to handle such studies (Stricklin et al.1990).Decisions on categorizing research uses of agricultural animals and defining standards for their care and use should be made by the IACUC based on both the researcher’s goals and concern for animal well-being.

9Regardless of the category of research, institutions are expected to provide oversight of all research animals and ensure that pain and distress are minimized.34 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 35 DISASTER PLANNING AND EMERGENCy PREPAREDNESS 36 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS Boissy A, Manteuffel G, Jensen MB, Moe RO, Spruijt B, Keeling L, Winckler C, Forkman B, Dimitrov I, Langbein J, Bakken M, Veissier I, Aubert A.2007.Assesment of positive emo – tions in animals to improve their welfare.Physiol Behav 92:375-397.Brown RE, Stanford L, Schellinck HM.2000.Developing standardized behavioral tests for knockout and mutant mice.ILAR J 41:163-174.Bush RK.

102001.Assessment and treatment of laboratory animal allergy.ILAR J 42:55-64.Bush RK, Stave GM.2003.Laboratory animal allergy: An update.ILAR J 44:28-51.CCAC [Canadian Council on Animal Care].1993.Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals, vol 1, 2nd ed.

11Olfert ED, Cross BM, McWilliam AA, eds.Ontario: CCAC.CCAC.1998.Guidelines on Choosing an Appropriate Endpoint in Experiments Using Animals for Research, Teaching and Testing.Ottawa.Available at – grams/Guidelines_Policies/gdlines/endpts/appopen.htm; accessed May 10, 2010.

12CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] and NIH [National Institutes of Health].2000.Primary Containment for Biohazards: Selection, Installation and Use of Biological Safety Cabinets, 2nd ed.Washington: Government Printing Office.Available at; accessed May 25, 2010.CFR [Code of Federal Regulations].1984a.

13Title 10, Part 20.Standards for Protection against Radiation.Washington: Office of the Federal Register.CFR.1984b.Title 29, Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Subpart G, Oc – cupational Health and Environmental Control, and Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances.Washington: Office of the Federal Register.CFR.1984c.Title 29, Part 1910.

14Occupational Safety and Health Standards; Subpart I, Personal Protective Equipment.Washington: Office of the Federal Register.CFR.1998.Title 29, Section 1910.120.Inspection Procedures for the Hazardous Waste Opera- tions and Emergency Response Standard.Washington: Office of the Federal Register.April 24.CFR.

152002a.Title 42, Part 73.Possession, Use and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins.Wash – ington: Office of the Federal Register.December 13.CFR.2002b.Title 7, Part 331; and Title 9, Part 121.Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002: Possession, Use and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins.Washington: Office of the Federal Register.

16December 13.Cohen JI, Davenport DS, Stewart JA, Deitchmann S, Hilliard JK, Chapman LE, B Virus Working Group.2002.Recommendations for prevention of and therapy for exposure to B virus (Cercopithecine herpesirus 1).Clin Infect Dis 35:1191-1203.Colby LA, Turner PV, Vasbinder MA.2007.Training strategies for laboratory animal veterinar – ians: Challenges and opportunities.ILAR J 48:143-155.Collins JG.

172008.Postapproval monitoring and the IACUC.ILAR J 49:388-392.Conarello SL, Shepard MJ.2007.Training strategies for research investigators and technicians.ILAR J 48:120-130.Crawley JN.1999.Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice: Experimental design and evaluation of general health, sensory functions, motor abilities, and specific behavioral tests.

18Brain Res 835:18-26.Dale WE.2008.Postapproval monitoring and the role of the compliance office.ILAR J 49:393-401.Dennis MB.1999.Institutional animal care and use committee review of genetic engineering.In: Gonder JC, Prentice ED, Russow L-M, eds.Genetic Engineering and Animal Welfare: Preparing for the 21st Century.

19Greenbelt MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.Dennis MB.2000.Humane endpoints for genetically engineered animal models.ILAR J 41:94-98.ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 3 DHHS [Department of Health and Human Services].2009.Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed.Chosewood LC, Wilson DE, eds.Washington: Gover – nment Printing Office.

20Available at Available at index.htm; accessed July 30, 2010.FASS [Federation of Animal Science Societies].2010.Guide for the Care and Use of Agricul – tural Animals in Research and Teaching, 3rd ed.Champlain, IL: FASS.Fechter LD.1995.

21Combined effects of noise and chemicals.Occup Med 10:609-621.Foshay WR, Tinkey PT.2007.Evaluating the effectiveness of training strategies: Performance goals and testing.ILAR J 48:156-162.Frasier D, Talka J.2005.Facility design considerations for select agent animal research.ILAR J 46:23-33.

22Gonder JC.2002.Regulatory compliance.In: Suckow MA, Douglas FA, Weichbrod RH, eds.Management of Laboratory Animal Care and Use Programs.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.p 163-185.Gondo Y.2008.Trends in large-scale mouse mutagenesis: From genetics to functional genom – ics.

23Nat Rev Genet 9:803-810.Gordon S.2001.Laboratory animal allergy: A British perspective on a global problem.ILAR J 42:37-46.Gordon S, Wallace J, Cook A, Tee RD, Newman Taylor AJ.1997.Reduction of exposure to laboratory animal allergens in the workplace.Clin Exp Allergy 27:744-751.Greene ME, Pitts ME, James ML.

242007.Training strategies for institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) members and the institutional official (IO).ILAR J 48:131-142.Harrison DJ.2001.Controlling exposure to laboratory animal allergens.ILAR J 42:17-36.Heiderstadt KM, McLaughlin RM, Wright DC, Walker SE, Gomez-Sanchez CE.2000.The effect of chronic food and water restriction on open-field behaviour and serum corticosterone levels in rats.

25Lab Anim 34:20-28.Hendriksen CFM, Steen B.2000.Refinement of vaccine potency testing with the use of hu – mane endpoints.ILAR J 41:105-113.Huerkamp MJ, Gladle MA, Mottet MP, Forde K.2009.Ergonomic considerations and allergen Ergonomic considerations and allergen management.In: Hessler JR, Lerner NMD, eds.Planning and Designing Research Animal Facilities.

26San Diego: Elsevier.p 115-128.ILAR [Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, National Research Council].2000.Humane Endpoints for Animals Used in Biomedical Research and Testing.ILAR J 41:59-123.ILAR.2010.Disaster planning and management.ILAR J 51:101-192.

27IRAC [Interagency Research Animal Committee].1985.US Government Principles for Utili – zation and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training.Federal Register, May 20, 1985.Washington: Office of Science and Technology Policy.Available at; accessed May 10, 2010.

28Klein HJ, Bayne KA.2007.Establishing a culture of care, conscience, and responsibility: Addressing the improvement of scientific discovery and animal welfare through science- based performance standards.ILAR J 48:3-11.Kreger MD.1995.Training Materials for Animal Facility Personnel: AWIC Quick Bibliography Series, 95-08.Beltsville MD: National Agricultural Library.Lassnig C, Kolb A, Strobl B, Enjuanes L, Müller M.2005.

29Studying human pathogens in human models: Fine tuning the humanized mouse.Transgenic Res 14:803-806.Laule GE, Bloomsmith MA, Schapiro SJ.2003.The use of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance the care, management, and welfare of primates in the laboratory.J Appl Anim Welf Sci 6:163-173.Lowman RP.2008.The institutional official and postapproval monitoring: The view from 10,000 feet.ILAR J 49:379-387.

3038 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS Mann MD, Prentice ED.2004.Should IACUCs review scientific merit of animal research projects? Lab Anim (NY) 33:26-31.McCullough NV.2000.Personal respiratory protection.In: Fleming DO, Hunt DL, eds.Biologi – cal Safety Principles and Practices.Washington: ASM Press.p 383-404.

31Meunier LD.2006.Selection, acclimation, training and preparation of dogs for the research setting.ILAR J 47:326-347.Midwest Plan Service.1987.Structures and Environment Handbook, 11th ed.rev.Ames: Mid – west Plan Service, Iowa State University.Miller G.

322007.Science and the public: Animal extremists get personal.Science 318:1856-1858.Moorehead RA, Sanchez OH, Baldwin RM, Khokha R.2003.Transgenic overexpression of IGF-II induces spontaneous lung tumors: A model for human lung adenocarcinoma.Oncogene 22:853-857.Morton DB.2000.A systematic approach for establishing humane endpoints.

33ILAR J 41:80-86.Morton WR, Knitter GH, Smith PV, Susor TG, Schmitt K.1987.Alternatives to chronic restraint of nonhuman primates.JAVMA 191:1282-1286.Mumphrey SM, Changotra H, Moore TN, Heimann-Nichols ER, Wobus CE, Reilly MJ, Mogha – damfalahi M, Shukla D, Karst SM.2007.Murine norovirus 1 infection is associated with histopathological changes in immunocompetent hosts, but clinical disease is prevented by STAT1-dependent interferon responses.J Virol 81:3251-3263.Newcomer CE.

342002.Hazard identification and control.In: Suckow MA, Douglas FA, Weich – brod RH, eds.Management of Laboratory Animal Care and Use Programs.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.p 291-324.NIH [National Institutes of Health].2002.Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.April.

35Available at; accessed May 20, 2010.NIH.2008.Guidelines for the Use of Non-Pharmaceutical-Grade Chemicals/Compounds in Laboratory Animals.Animal Research Advisory Committee, Office of Animal Care and Use, NIH.Available at http://oacu. – pounds.pdf; accessed May 20, 2010.NIOSH [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health].1997a.Elements of Ergonom – ics Programs: A Primer Based on Workplace Evaluations of Musculoskeletal Disorders (NIOSH Publication No.97-117).Cincinnati: NIOSH.p 16-24.

37NIOSH.1997b.Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors: A Critical Review of Epi – demiologic Evidence for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Neck, Upper Ex – tremity, and Low Back.Bernard B, ed.Cincinnati: DHHS, PHS, CDDC, NIOSH.p 1-12.NRC [National Research Council].1991.Education and Training in the Care and Use of Labo – ratory Animals: A Guide for Developing Institutional Programs.Washington: National Academy Press.

38NRC.1997.Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals.Wash – ington: National Academy Press.NRC.2003a.Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Primates.Washington: National Academies Press.NRC.2003b.

39Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research.Washington: National Academies Press.NRC.2004.Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism.Washington: National Academies Press.OECD [Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development].1999.Guidance Docu – ment on Humane Endpoints for Experimental Animals Used in Safety Evaluation Studies.Paris: OECD.

40ANIMAL CARE ANd USE PROGRAM 3 Olfert ED, Godson DL.2000.Humane endpoints for infectious disease animal models.ILAR J 41:99-104.OSHA [Occupational Safety and Health Administration].1998a.Occupational Safety and Health Standards.Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Controls (29 CFR 1910).Washington: Department of Labor.OSHA.

411998b.Occupational Safety and Health Standards.Subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Sub – stances, Bloodborne Pathogens (29 CFR 1910.1030).Washington: Department of Labor.OSHA.1998c.Occupational Safety and Health Standards.Subpart G, Occupational Health and Environmental Controls, Occupational Noise Exposure (29 CFR 1910.95).

42Washing – ton: Department of Labor.OSHA.1998d.Occupational Safety and Health Standards.Subpart I, Personal Protective Equip – ment, Respiratory Protection (29 CFR 1910.134).Washington: Department of Labor.Paster EV, Villines KA, Hickman DL.2009.Endpoints for mouse abdominal tumor models: Refinement of current criteria.

43Comp Med 59:234-241.PHS [Public Health Service].2002.Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.Available at olaw/references/phspol.htm; accessed January 14, 2010.PL [Public Law] 104-191.

441996.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996.Washington: Government Printing Office.PL 107-56.2001.Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001.Washington: Govern – ment Printing Office.October 26.PL 107-188.2002.

45Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002.Washington: Government Printing Office.June 12.Plante A, James ML.2008.Program oversight enhancements (POE): The big PAM.ILAR J 49:419-425.Prescott MJ, Buchanan-Smith HM.2003.Training nonhuman primates using positive reinforce – ment techniques.

46J Appl Anim Welf Sci 6:157-161.Pritt S, Duffee N.2007.Training strategies for animal care technicians and veterinary technical staff.ILAR J 48:109-119.Reeb-Whitaker CK, Harrison, DJ, Jones RB, Kacergis JB, Myers DD, Paigen B.1999.Control strategies for aeroallergens in an animal facility.J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:139-146.Reinhardt V.

471991.Training adult male rhesus monkeys to actively cooperate during in- homecage venipuncture.Anim Technol 42:11-17.Reinhardt V.1995.Restraint methods of laboratory non-human primates: A critical review.Anim Welf 4:221-238.Richmond JY, Hill RH, Weyant RS, Nesby-O’Dell SL, Vinson PE.2003.What’s hot in animal biosafety? ILAR J 44:20-27.

48Rowland NE.2007.Food or fluid restriction in common laboratory animals: Balancing welfare considerations with scientific inquiry.Comp Med 57:149-160.Sargent EV, Gallo F.2003.Use of personal protective equipment for respiratory protection.ILAR J 44:52-56.Sass N.2000.

49Humane endpoints and acute toxicity testing.ILAR J 41:114-123.ILAR J 41:114-123.Sauceda R, Schmidt MG.2000.Refining macaque handling and restraint techniques.Lab Refining macaque handling and restraint techniques.Lab Anim 29:47-49.Schweitzer IB, Smith E, Harrison DJ, Myers DD, Eggleston PA, Stockwell JD, Paigen B, Smith AL.2003.

50Reducing exposure to laboratory animal allergens.Comp Med 53:487-492.Seward JP.2001.Medical surveillance of allergy in laboratory animal handlers.ILAR J 42:47-54.Silverman J, Sukow MA, Murthy S, eds.2007.The IACUC Handbook, 2nd ed.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

5140 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS Stokes WS.2000.Reducing unrelieved pain and distress in laboratory animals using humane endpoints.ILAR J 41:59-61.Stokes WS.2002.Humane endpoints for laboratory animals used in regulatory testing.ILAR J 43:S31-S38.Stricklin WR, Mench JA.1994.

52Oversight of the use of agricultural animals in university teach – ing and research.ILAR News 36:9-14.Stricklin WR, Purcell D, Mench JA.1990.Farm animals in agricultural and biomedical re – search.In: The Well-Being of Agricultural Animals in Biomedical and Agricultural Re – search: Proceedings from a SCAW-Sponsored Conference, September 6-7.Washington: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare.p 1-4.Thomann WR.2003.

53Chemical safety in animal care, use, and research.ILAR J 44:13-19.Thulin H, Bjorkdahl M, Karlsson AS, Renstrom A.2002.Reduction of exposure to laboratory animal allergens in a research laboratory.Ann Occup Hyg 46:61-68.Tillman P.1994.Integrating agricultural and biomedical research policies: Conflicts and op – portunities.ILAR News 36:29-35.

54Toth LA.1997.The moribund state as an experimental endpoint.Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 36:44-48.Toth LA.2000.Defining the moribund condition as an experimental endpoint for animal research.ILAR J 41:72-79.Toth LA, Gardiner TW.2000.

55Food and water restriction protocols: Physiological and behav – ioral considerations.Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 39:9-17.UKCCCR [United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research].1997.Guidelines for the Welfare of Animals in Experimental Neoplasia, 2nd ed.London: UKCCCR.USC [United States Code].Title 42, Chapter 6a, Subchapter III, Part H, Section 289d: Animals in Research.Available at

56gov/download/pls/42CGA.txt.USDA [US Department of Agriculture].1985.9 CFR 1A.(Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A): Animal Welfare.Available at 7adf2c9f1964e2d82a88d92andc=ecfrandtpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title09/9cfrv1_02.tpl; accessed January 14, 2010.

57USDA.1997a.APHIS Policy #14, “Multiple Survival Surgery: Single vs.Multiple Procedures” (April 14).Available at; accessed January 4, 2010.USDA.

581997b.APHIS Policy #3, “Veterinary Care” (July 17).Available at; accessed January 9, 2010.USDA.2002.Facilities Design Standards.

59Manual 242.1.Available at; accessed May 10, 2010.Van Sluyters RC.2008.

60A guide to risk assessment in animal care and use programs: The meta – phor of the 3-legged stool.ILAR J 49:372-378.Yeates JW, Main DCJ.2009.Assesment of positive welfare: A review.Vet Rev 175:293-300.Vogelweid CM.1998.Developing emergency management plans for university laboratory animal programs and facilities.Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 37:52-56.

61Wallace J.2000.Humane endpoints and cancer research.ILAR J 41:87-93.Wolff A, Garnett N, Potkay S, Wigglesworth C, Doyle D, Thornton, D.2003.Frequently asked questions about the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.Lab Anim 32(9):33-36.Wolfle TL, Bush RK.2001.

The science and pervasiveness of laboratory animal allergy.ILAR J 42:1-3.Wood RA.2001.Laboratory animal allergens.ILAR J 42:12-16.41 3 Environment, Housing, and Management T 42 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ENVIRONMENT, hOUSING, ANd MANAGEMENT 43 Temperature and humidity 44 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ENVIRONMENT, hOUSING, ANd MANAGEMENT 45 46 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ENVIRONMENT, hOUSING, ANd MANAGEMENT 4 48 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ENVIRONMENT, hOUSING, ANd MANAGEMENT 4 50 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS ENVIRONMENT, hOUSING, ANd MANAGEMENT 51 52 GUIdE FOR ThE CARE ANd USE OF LAbORATORy ANIMALS 1 1 ENVIRONMENT, hOUSING, ANd MANAGEMENT 53 exercise, manipulative activities, and cognitive challenges according to species-specific characteristics (NRC 1998a; Young 2003).Examples of enrichment include structural additions such as perches and visual barriers for nonhuman primates (Novak et al.2007); elevated shelves for cats (Overall and Dyer 2005; van den Bos and de Cock Buning 1994) and rabbits (Stauffacher 1992); and shelters for guinea pigs (Baumans 2005), as well as manipulable resources such as novel objects and foraging devices for nonhuman primates; manipulable toys for nonhuman primates, dogs, cats, and swine; wooden chew sticks for some rodent species;….

Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals

  • PDF Name: Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals
  • PDF URL:
  • Total Page Number: 246

View Full PDF